Rudrapur is a city in Udham Singh Nagar district in the Indian state of Uttarakhand. Located at a distance of about 250 km (160 mi) northeast of New Delhi and 250 km (160 mi) south of Dehradun, Rudrapur has a history of over 500 years. It was established in the 16th century by King Rudra Chand, and was the residence of the governor of Tarai region of Kumaon. The city continues to serve as the headquarters of the Udham Singh Nagar district apart from being a major industrial and educational hub today.
Rudrapur is located in the fertile Terai region over an area of 27.65 km2. With a population of 140,857 according to the 2011 census of India, Rudrapur is the 5th most populous city of Uttarakhand. Since the establishment of the State Industrial Development Corporation of Uttarakhand, the city has undergone rapid development, along with literacy growth and higher employment.
In this area, some artesian water wells produce water under pressure and no pump is required. However, in the last two decades, this auto-flow system has drastically declined, leading Rudrapur into a groundwater crisis.